The cost to implement an advanced public transportation systems in Ann Arbor, Michigan was $32,500 per bus.
The MDTs were installed to automatically monitor and track vehicle location, schedule adherence, passenger counts, and engine performance. Each bus tracked its location using differential global positioning satellite (DGPS) technology accurate to about one or two meters and then compared its location with bus route schedule information preloaded into the on-board MDT using an insertable memory card. If a bus was behind schedule, the vehicle automatically notified the operations center and asked connecting buses to hold for late transfers. Updated schedules were then made available to passengers via the Internet, telephone, or on kiosks at selected bus stops. In addition, the AVL system was able to change destination announcements on electronic message signs located on the inside and outside of each bus to reflect any changes in scheduled routes.
To improve safety, camera surveillance systems were installed on each bus, and onboard emergency systems enabled drivers to manually activate an alert to notify dispatchers of life-threatening situations. These systems enabled dispatchers to quickly contact authorities and communicate with passengers using an in-vehicle public address system. Overall, the integrated transit management system cost $2.64 million or about $35,200 per bus for a fleet of 75 buses.
Summary of capital costs incurred to 1999:
*Divided by the fleet number (75 buses)
Operating costs remained fairly constant between October 1995 and May 1999. On average operating expenditures were about $1.25 million per year (1995 dollars) and included wages, fringe benefits, services, materials and supplies, utilities, and insurance, purchased trans, rental, and other.
Author: Jonathan Levine
Published By: Alfred Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Michigan◙
Source Date: October 1999
EDL Number: 13156URL: http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/jpodocs/repts_te/13156.pdf
O&M Cost: Approximately $1.25 million per year (1995 dollars).
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Intelligent Transportation Systems > Transit Management > Information Dissemination > In-Vehicle Systems
Intelligent Transportation Systems > Transit Management > Operations & Fleet Management > Automatic Vehicle Location / Computer-Aided Dispatch
Intelligent Transportation Systems > Transit Management > Safety & Security > In-Vehicle Surveillance
Intelligent Transportation Systems > Transit Management > Operations & Fleet Management > Maintenance
Intelligent Transportation Systems > Transit Management > Transportation Demand Management > Dynamic Routing/Scheduling
automated vehicle location, computer aided dispatch, automatic vehicle locator, AVL, CAD, AVL/CAD, CCTV, closed circuit television cameras, security, paratransit, demand-responsive transit