Consider stakeholder outreach and education, transport modes that offer an alternative to driving, performance measurement, and area geography with high importance in the planning phase for road pricing programs.
Experience from road pricing programs in Europe and Asia
London,England; Stockholm,Sweden; Singapore; Czech Republic; Germany; The Hague,Netherlands
- Address stakeholder education and outreach, and stakeholder management comprehensively in the planning process.
The Netherlands: The Dutch have studied distance-based charging and engaged key stakeholders on the subject several times since the 1980s. Recent implementation planning in the Netherlands involved extensive outreach during the system design and development process with a wide range of public agencies, private interests, and industry user groups. The Dutch provided significant funding for implementation research in a US$150 million congestion mitigation program.
Singapore: Singapore, on the other hand, used grassroots representatives to gauge public sentiment before expanding the charge to the Orchard Area shopping district and expressways. Consultation typically starts with core stakeholders and later reaches out to the public through communications programs.
- Consider comprehensive network planning and performance measures as integral to pre-implementation efforts, as well as ongoing system management.
Sweden, The Netherlands: Most sites use advanced analytics and traffic models to better understand the network impacts of pricing on parking, transit, and system diversion issues. In planning the Stockholm system, internationally recognized traffic experts were retained to measure network effects of various configurations of the charging zone to ensure that there were no unintended effects outside the congestion-charging zone. Similarly, the Netherlands has also undertaken comprehensive planning exercises to look at network effects across several modes.
Singapore: Singapore’s ongoing management of its congestion charge includes quarterly verification of travel speeds and refinement of prices to ensure that 85th percentile travel speed standards are maintained on two different classes of roadways.
- Develop and integrate transport options that allow alternatives to driving in the road pricing program planning.
London, Singapore, and Stockholm: These cities made significant investments in transit to ensure that those impacted by the new road-user fees would have alternatives to driving. Such plans provided adequate capacity and service levels to ensure balanced transportation network demand, and limited minimal impacts to mobility and businesses with urban charging zones. When provisions of modal alternatives to driving are not feasible, several pricing programs have employed exemptions or discounts to the road-user charge. Stockholm exempted Lidingö Island residents who pass through the city center to access the national highway network from the congestion tax. Similarly, residents in the central London and western extension charging zones enjoy a 90 percent discount on the congestion charge.
- Understand that Geography plays a role in the design and business rules of pricing programs.
Stockholm: Stockholm’s city center is an island with well-defined access points that served to define roadside equipment locations and customer understanding of the limits of the charging zone.
Germany, Czech Republic: Both Germany and the Czech Republic are central to European goods movement, handling high volumes of out-of-country movements on their national highways. Pricing system designs and business rules were established specifically to meet objectives for both native and foreign truckers.
Singapore: Singapore is an island city-state with limited land available for development and economic expansion. As a consequence, Singapore has instituted regulations and planning processes to target specific land uses, encourage high-density development linked to transit, and manage the demand for new vehicles through its vehicle quota service.
London: A public consultation process preceded the London congestion charge, leading to many exemptions from the charge. A public consultation held after Mayor Boris Johnson took office recommended discontinuing the congestion charging in London’s western extension.
Author: Robert Arnold, Vance C. Smith, John Q. Doan, Rodney N. Barry, Jayme L. Blakesley, Patrick T. DeCorla-Souza, Mark F. Muriello, Gummada N. Murthy, Patty K. Rubstello, Nick A. Thompson
Published By: Federal Highway Administration, U.S. DOT
Source Date: 12/01/2010URL: http://international.fhwa.dot.gov/pubs/pl10030/pl10030.pdf
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congestion pricing, value pricing, variable road pricing, managed lanes