Cost

The costs of the in-vehicle components of precision docking technology ranged from $2,700 to $14,000 per bus depending on the number of units produced.


August 2004
Chicago,Illinois,United States


Summary Information

As part of a feasibility assessment to evaluate Cooperative Vehicle–Highway Automation Systems (CVHAS), this study estimated the costs to implement precision docking technology, automated steering controls, collision warning systems, and transit signal priority for bus rapid transit (BRT) in the central area Chicago. In addition, the study examined CHVAS applications for trucks, and provided cost estimates to deploy automatic steering control, longitudinal control (for platooning), and automated driving systems to enhance intermodal freight operations at the Port of Chicago.

CVHAS APPLICATIONS FOR BRT

Precision docking (Implementation Costs)

Cost estimates for in-vehicle components ranged from $2,700 to $14,000 per bus depending on the number of units produced. The following data were excerpted from table 3.11 of the report.

In-vehicle
cost components
Near term unit cost
(production line of hundreds)
Long term unit cost
(production line of ten thousand)
Steering actuator
$2,500
$500
Magnetic sensors
$5,000
$1,000
Computer and interfaces
$5,000
$1,000
Driver interface
$1000
included
Installation/ integration
$500
$200
Total
$14,000
$2,700

Infrastructure (facility) costs included the installation of magnetic reference markings at bus stops ($500 per stop) and the construction of boarding platforms ($2000 per stop).

Transit signal priority (Implementation Costs)

Based on previous deployments in Los Angeles and Oakland, California, the authors estimated it would cost roughly $100,000 per mile to implement transit signal priority in Chicago. Costs were expected to vary depending on the capabilities of current traffic signals, bus componentry, and level of retrofit needed to make the system operational.

Collision warning system (Implementation Costs)

By the year 2010, the cost to equip one bus with frontal, rear, or side collision warning systems was estimated to cost $2,000, $2,500, and $500, respectively.

CVHAS APPLICATIONS FOR TRUCK/FREIGHT MOVEMENT

The following CVHAS technologies were evaluated to determine their impacts on intermodal freight truck operations.
  • Automatic steering control
  • Automatic longitudinal control in platoons
  • Fully automated driving
The economic feasibility of these technologies was evaluated by comparing five alternative operational concepts.

Alternative 1
  • Baseline (no CVHAS technologies, no truck-only facilities).
Alternative 2
  • Truck-only facility without CVHAS technologies, open to all trucks.
  • One standard 12-foot lane in each direction prior to the Year 2015, and a second lane added for several segments of the facility by the Year 2015.
Alternative 3
  • Truck-only facility with CVHAS technologies (automatic steering) for equipped trucks only.
  • One 10-foot lane in each direction. Automatic steering control makes it possible for equipped trucks to follow lanes very accurately. For maximum width trucks of 9 feet, lanes need only be 10 feet wide rather than the standard 12 feet.
Alternative 4
  • Truck-only facility with fully automated CVHAS technologies (automatic steering, automatic speed and spacing control with two or three truck platoons if warranted) for equipped trucks only.
  • One 10-foot lane in each direction.
Alternative 5
  • Truck-only facility without CVHAS technologies before Year 2015.
  • At Year 2015, upgrading the facility to be an automated truck-way (automatic steering, speed and spacing control with two or three truck platoons).
  • One standard 12-foot lane in each direction.
The data below excerpted from table 4.16 of the report show the total 20 year estimated cost (2005 to 2025) for each alternative. The analysis used a seven percent annual discount rate. The cost data shown are in 2003 dollars.

Primary Cost Categories
Alternative 2
Alternative 3
Alternative 4
Alternative 5
Construction costs of truck-only roadway
$716,164,244
$439,216,000
$439,216,000
$474,800,000
Right-of-way (ROW) costs
$73,871,424
$48,016,426
$48,016,426
$51,709,997
Annual facility operation and maintenance cost
$21,941,915
$17,391,021
$18,550,423
$15,544,330
Equipment and installation costs (facilities)
$0
$445,000
$1,638,342
$1,665,700
Equipment and installation costs (vehicles)
$0
$165,038,739
$300,196,641
$40,259,968
Total
$811,977,583
$670,107,186
$807,617,831
$583,979,994

Additional details on the Primary Cost Categories are shown below.

Construction Costs

Roadway construction costs were estimated from historical cost data collected in the Chicago area.

ROW Costs

The costs of ROW land were estimated by multiplying the ROW width by the unit cost and total length for each alternative to yield the total ROW costs. The cost of industrial space (land alone) was estimated at $3.93 per square foot (net) in Chicago-Cook County area.

Operation and maintenance (O&M) Costs

O&M costs were calculated as a percentage of total project cost. O&M for Alternative 2 were estimated at 3 to 4 percent of construction costs over a 20-year period. The O&M for Alternatives 3, 4 and 5 (after 2015) were estimated to be 10 to 15 percent higher, because of maintenance of electronics and instruments and more frequent pavement rehabilitations.

CVHAS equipment and installation costs (Facility)

Automatic steering and full automation need roadway reference markings (i.e., permanent magnets installed in the pavement). Installation of magnets was estimated to cost approximately $5,000 per lane mile for new construction and $10,000 per lane mile to retrofit existing roadways.

Dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) in the 5.9 GHz band not yet commercially available at the time of the evaluation were estimated to cost no more than $5,000 each. One roadside unit was expected to be needed at each on-ramp and off-ramp, and then periodically spaced along the roadway at 300 meter intervals.

CVHAS equipment and installation costs (In-vehicle unit)

The cost estimates for in-vehicle systems accounted for incremental differences in cost over time due to production level increases which were expected to lower the relative unit cost in future years. The following were excerpted from table 4.12 of the report.

Automatic steering control
Cost generators
Near-term
unit cost
Long-term
unit cost
Steering actuator
$2,500
$500
Magnetic sensors
$5,000
$1,000
Computer and interfaces
$5,000
$1,000
Installation/integration
$500
$200
Sub-total
$13,000
$2,700
Additional costs for full automation
Forward ranging sensor(s)
$2,500
$500
Wireless communication
$500
$100
Brake actuation
$5,000
$1,000
Driver interface
$1,000
Assume included
Installation/integration
$1,000
$300
Total
$23,000
$4,600



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Source

Assessment of the Applicability of Cooperative Vehicle-Highway Automation Systems to Bus Transit and Intermodal Freight: Case Study Feasibility Analyses in the Metropolitan Chicago Region

Author: Shladover, Steven E., et al.

Published By: California PATH Program, University of California

Source Date: August 2004

Other Reference Number: Report No. UCB-ITS-PRR-2004-26

URL: http://repositories.cdlib.org/its/path/reports/UCB-ITS-PRR-2004-26/

System Cost

BRT precision docking technology:

In-vehicle costs: $2,700 to $14,000 per bus.

Infrastructure costs: $2,500 per stop (includes installation of magnetic reference markers and boarding platforms).

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Cost ID: 2008-00177